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FREE DOWNLOAD ⚝ The Sugar King of Havana: The Rise and Fall of Julio Lobo, Cuba's Last Tycoon í Book by Rathbone, John Paul Touch Not the Cat Cuba's Last Tycoon í Book by Rathbone The Charmer’s Box John Paul This is an interesting book written in the confusing matter The author blends the history of Julio Lobo a Cuban sugar mill owner and sugar trader, who at one time controlled half the sugar in Cuba, with the history of wealthy Cuban sugar mill owners, with the revolutionary history of Cuba He goes back and forth and skips around so that though it is filled with interesting history and interesting tidbits it is hard to follow.Before Castro Cuba was known as the American Riviera Havana hotels l This is an interesting book written in the confusing matter The author blends the history of Julio Lobo a Cuban sugar mill owner and sugar trader, who at one time controlled half the sugar in Cuba, with the history of wealthy Cuban sugar mill owners, with the revolutionary history of Cuba He goes back and forth and skips around so that though it is filled with interesting history and interesting tidbits it is hard to follow.Before Castro Cuba was known as the American Riviera Havana hotels links to the mafia were an open secret Marijuana, cocaine, booze and girls were freely available.Che Guevara and Fidel Castro s crossing or the Gulf of Mexico in November 1956 was an unmitigated disaster It took seven days instead of five the revolutionaries were all sick and landed in the wrong spot, the navigator had fallen overboard and the Granma ran aground on a sandbar The men had to slog through swamps throwing way most of their equipment and leaving only a few rifles and cartridge belts The next day they were ambushed by Batista s forces 82 men came ashore only 22 ultimately found their way to the Sierra Maestra.Cuba and sugar have been tied at the hip since Britain had captured the island in 1762 and opened the island to the slave trade The first bloody ten year war against Spain began in 1868 when the planter Carlos Manuel de Cepedes freed the 30 slaves on his sugar plantation in eastern Cuba and began the rebellion against the Spanish A truce was signed 10 years later The next revolt began in 1895 organized by the writer and poet Jose Marti from New York Marti wrote the poem that became the words for the Cuban song Guantanamera Marti united a host of Cuban factions including the emigrate community outside of Cuba, spoke eloquently raised funds and is considered a hero of the Cuban revolution Camaguey, the isolated central part of Cuba was central to the first and second Cuban revolutions In 1898 the USS Maine exploded in Havana harbor The US blamed the Spanish though it is now thought to have been an accident The US shortly thereafter invade and quickly achieved victory over the Spanish In the settlement Americans and Spanish were present, the Cubans nowhere to be seen The Spanish flag was lowered the American flag was raised a Cuban flag was nowhere to be found The Cuban s had fought for 10 years for independence had it within their reach and victory was snatched from them by the Americans.The U.S wanted Cuba almost since its founding In 1821 Thomas Jefferson wrote to Pres James Monroe that Cuba looked like the most interesting addition which could ever be made to our system of states And now they owned it The Cubans were amazed how quickly the occupying American troops transformed island Rubble was cleared, the now famous Malecon, an enormous seawall, was built The capital building was built similar to the White House in Washington only 13 feet taller and costing 20 million.A constitution was written that included the hated Pratt amendment which allowed for the Americans to keep permanent military bases in Cuba, Guant namo and others, and allowed the US to intervene in Cuba at any time they chose The Platt amendment was the requirement the Americans made for their leaving Cuba After independence a hundred thousand exiles return to the island along with one half million Spaniards.Lobos parents immigrated from Venezuela in 1899 being chased out by a revolutionary, Cipriano Castro, unrelated to Fidel,In 1914 at age 16 Lobos entered Columbia University and decided to become a sugar expert Cuba s sugar exports were booming with the outbreak of the First World War He left Columbia after just one year and enrolled in the sugar engineering Institute at Louisiana State University Returning to Cuba in 1919 he entered the country in the midst of the speculative sugar boom just like the dot com boom of the 1980s Cuba s immense forests or being cut down and burned to expand sugar production Cuba produced one quarter of the world s sugar In the 1920s the sugar price collapsed from.20.03 The government decided to cut sugar production to push up the price supposedly to protect small Cuban sugar mills It didn t work sugar production increased elsewhere and the price stay low All of Cuba suffered.Lobo during this time was working for a sugar trading company.Gerardo Machado was elected president of Cuba in 1925 promising to end corruption Four years later he had become a tropical Mussolini literally feeding his opponents to the sharks In 1933 Batista, a sergeant, took over in a coup d tat Batista appointed Grau, a left leaning reformer, as president With US warships nearby the US objected, Grau resigned and a new president was appointed.In the 1950s plans have been submitted by a US architect to raze much of the old city of Havana turning it into parking lots and skyscrapers connected with bridges to an artificial island in the bay that would contain casinos The revolution stopped such planning.Batista ran for president in 1940 and won and pursued aggressive reform In 1944 Grau won and Batista retired to Daytona Beach Florida During the this period armed gangs roamed the countryside and many were based in Havana at the University Castro, at the University at that time, said it wasdangerous for him there than years later in the Sierra Maestra.Meanwhile Loebel had become fabulously wealthy with his expertise in sugar trading He simply worked harder than anyone else in the business Long before it was a common practice, Lobo orchestrated a hostile takeover of an American firm that own sugar mills in Cuba.In 1941 Lobo dined with the president of Haiti and noticed that the cutlery on the table had been taking from various New York hotels like Astor and the Waldorf.In 1948 Carlos Prio was elected president In 1952 Batista returned hoping to be elected president again, however, when it looked like he was going to lose he initiated a coup Grau and Prios eight years of rule had been eight years of corruption.Lobo wanted to modernize the sugarcane industry but received great pressure from workers and even ending in the sabotage of some of his new equipment.And his essay, Compensation, Emerson develop the idea of a spiritual ledger with debits and credit If you are wise you will dread a prosperity which only loads you withFor every benefit which you receive, a tax is levied He is great who confers the most benefits He is base who receives favors and renders none In the mid 50s Havana it became known as the Paris of the Caribbean, the Monte Carlo of the Americas, the greatest party town on earth Never the less sugar brought in 10 times the revenue that tourism did.Castro was the son for wealthy landowner in eastern Cuba He was disciplined, shrewd and courageous He was also lucky in the accidental elimination of many rivals The botched palace attacked by students, the death of the Revolutionary directorates leader Jose Antonio Echeverria, then better known than Castro, and later the death of Frank Pais Castro s rival There were other rebel groups fighting at the end of 1958 but Castro captured the popular imagination.Castro went on a victory tour in the United States after the revolution and met with vice Pres Nixon told Eisenhower that Castro was either a communist or he was a dupe incredibly na ve The book says that the Bay of Pigs the invaders lacked air cover, however, our guide in Cuba said there were multiple US airplane shot down and showed us a piece of one in the Bay of Pigs museum Who knows the truth Today 1 10 of the Cuban population lives outside of Cuba This is as strange a situation as of 6 million British lived in exile in Calais 80 miles from London and Harold McMillan will still prime minister as he was when Castro came to power.Cuba has a landmass the size of England and Wales Few countries have wage three successful African wars in the second half of the last century Cuba did At rallies people chatted with Fidel, with Fidel, always with Fidel to the tune of jingle bells.At the end of 1959 liberal members of the government resigned when Castro made it clear there need not be elections In 1960 there was a government clampdown on independent media Eisenhower signed a presidential order for the CIA to recruit exiles return to Cuba and wage war People began leaving the island In May Cuba established relations with Moscow In June US oil companies refused to refine Sophia crude oil on the island and their assets were nationalized In July of the US Congress ended the sugar quota.Julio Lobo controlled a the huge percentage of the Cuban sugar trade and was approached by Che Guevara to become general manager of the Cuban sugar industry under the Revolutionary government Lobo had no interest and instead left the country leaving all his wealth behind him This book was a pleasure to read for several reasons First of all, Rathbone meticulously researched it and those who know Havana will immediately recognize various toponyms where the drama of Julio Lobo s strange life took place I was reading this book in an apartment in Vedado, not far from where Lobo spent most of his mature years, so in a way this book had an extended effect, spilling over into my daily life Lobo is still a rather controversial figure in Cuba and is well known especially a This book was a pleasure to read for several reasons First of all, Rathbone meticulously researched it and those who know Havana will immediately recognize various toponyms where the drama of Julio Lobo s strange life took place I was reading this book in an apartment in Vedado, not far from where Lobo spent most of his mature years, so in a way this book had an extended effect, spilling over into my daily life Lobo is still a rather controversial figure in Cuba and is well known especially among older Cubans who all seem to have very strong opinions about him it was a particular pleasure to be able to fill the factual gaps with local gossip Another rather interesting feature of the book is its balanced presentation of life in pre revolutionary Cuba This is a very sensitive subject since most authors tend to romanticize this period, and Rathbone rather self consciously falls into this trap form time to time, but far less than other authors who live and work outside of Cuba He didn t ignore pre revolutionary Cuba s rampant racism and class discrimination, illiteracy and poor conditions of workers Also, he was pretty balanced in the way in which he approached Lobo s connections to Fidel Castro and Che Guevara, avoiding pointless propaganda, whether Castrist or anti Castrist, and those who are interested in Cuban history know well enough how difficult this is to achieve.Even if you are not very interested in the complex and frequently incomprehensible Cuban history, this book is probably going to be an interesting read, as Julio Lobo was a truly one of a kind character, a Cuban nationalist obsessed with Napoleon, capitalist who didn t care about money, a man who wasn t scared to go against dictators, to risk his life s work, or to propose to Bette Davis Mercifully this one came to an end This was written in a very dry fashion by a British economist and it showed Story was bogged down by way too much exact economic stats about the sugar industry and took away from interesting subject matter Julio Lobo I give this a generous 2 stars, anyone interested in 1950 s Havana should check out Havana Nocturn by T.J English. It s very clear that the author doesn t have enough sources to make this biography come alive, so instead he just heavily seasons it with stories of his own Cuban exile family I give him points on trying though, about time that some one painted anuanced picture of pre revolutionary Cuba.