{Free Epub} ô The Infinity Puzzle: Quantum Field Theory and the Hunt for an Orderly Universe Ø eBook or E-pub free

This is a really important popular science book if you are interested in physics, because it covers some of the important bits of modern physics that most of us science writers are too afraid to write about Starting with renormalization in QED, the technique used to get rid of the unwanted infinities that plagued the early versions of the theory and moving on to the weak force, the massive W and Z bosons, the Higgs business and the development of the concept of quarks and some aspects of the th This is a really important popular science book if you are interested in physics, because it covers some of the important bits of modern physics that most of us science writers are too afraid to write about Starting with renormalization in QED, the technique used to get rid of the unwanted infinities that plagued the early versions of the theory and moving on to the weak force, the massive W and Z bosons, the Higgs business and the development of the concept of quarks and some aspects of the theory covering the strong force that holds them in place, it contains a string of revelations that I have never seen covered to any degree in a popular text elsewhere.Take that renormalization business I have seen and written plenty of passing references to this, but never seen a good explanation of what the problem with infinities was really about, or how the renormalization was achieved and justified Frank Close does this Similarly I hadn t realised that Murray Gell Mann, the man behind the quark name, originally took a similar view to quarks as Planck did to quanta a mathematical trick to get the right answer that didn t reflect anything real in terms of the particles involved.For at least the first half of the book I was determined to give it five stars, despite itself The content was sufficiently important and infrequently covered to require this That despite itself is because this is no light read it makes the infamously frequently unfinished Brief History of Time seem a piece of cake I think the reason for this is that the concepts here arealien to the reader than those typically met in traditional hard topics like relativity or quantum theory Close does define a term like gauge invariance before using it, but then keeps using it for chapter after chapter The trouble is, to the author this is an everyday concept, but to the reader the words are practically meaningless unlike, say space and time in relativity , so a couple of pages on from the definition we ve forgotten what it means and get horribly lost These aspects spontaneous symmetry breaking is another example would have benefited hugely from adetailed explanation and then use ofapproachable terms along the way rather than what can be a highly opaque jargon.I could forgive the author this though After all his writing style is fine and there is all that interesting content But there were a couple of things that dragged the book down a little for me The first was a tendency to skip over bits of science, leaving them mysterious For example, at one point we are told that a process can be split into five categories scalar, pseudo scalar, tensor, vector and axial Of these only vector and scalar are defined, so when we are told that the weak force was classified as V A, we have no clue what this means as we don t know what axial means, or the significance of the minus sign This is Rutherfordian stamp collecting, giving us labels without understanding the meaning.Worse though, and the dominant part of the second half of the book, was that there was just far too much dissecting exactly who contributed exactly what little component to the theory, and who got the Nobel prize for what, and who didn t get it, despite deserving it Frankly, this is too much of an insider s idea of what s important We don t really care I wish this had been omitted, leaving room forhandholding on the theory.The trouble is, there were far too many people involved to get any successful human interest going in the story Nobel prizes of themselves don t make people interesting I have two scientific heroes in the last 100 years Richard Feynman and Fred Hoyle Obviously I m in awe of the work of many others Einstein, say but this misses the point In that same period there must have been getting on for 300 Nobel prize winners in physics alone I m interested in their work, but I can t get too excited about them as people Those who criticise popular science for being too driven by the stories of a few individuals when so many have contributed miss the point You can only have so many heroes.Overall this remain a really important book if you want to get to grips with modern particle physics and quantum field theory It fills in lots of gaps that other books gloss over But it would be remiss of me not to also point out my concerns Originally published on www.popularscience.co.uk and reproduced with permission This is a detailed history of the discoveries of Quantum Electrodynamics QED , Quantum Chromodynamics QCD , and their unification into the Standard Model by spontaneous symmetry breaking and the Higgs mechanism It s one of those people driven histories of science, which can get boring if not petty at times But overall, it tells an exciting story of this impressive achievement.The central theme of the book is renormalization in Gauge Theory The first half of the book introduces the reader to This is a detailed history of the discoveries of Quantum Electrodynamics QED , Quantum Chromodynamics QCD , and their unification into the Standard Model by spontaneous symmetry breaking and the Higgs mechanism It s one of those people driven histories of science, which can get boring if not petty at times But overall, it tells an exciting story of this impressive achievement.The central theme of the book is renormalization in Gauge Theory The first half of the book introduces the reader to these topics quite well, and doesn t hold back too much of the mathematical details I feel like I understand this topic a lot better, now Very educational Close provided a history of quantum physics from QED and Feynman s diagrams to the hunt for the Higgs I never get tired of Feynman s antics, and it s clear Frank Close doesn t either Like so many other researchers with new and bold ideas, Feynman s new ideas associated with QED were not taken seriously The debates were always very heated, so much so, that one time, Feynman gave up mid lecture even though he was right He came back the next time with his not yet famous diagrams But even Close provided a history of quantum physics from QED and Feynman s diagrams to the hunt for the Higgs I never get tired of Feynman s antics, and it s clear Frank Close doesn t either Like so many other researchers with new and bold ideas, Feynman s new ideas associated with QED were not taken seriously The debates were always very heated, so much so, that one time, Feynman gave up mid lecture even though he was right He came back the next time with his not yet famous diagrams But even with the diagrams, people simply did not take his idea seriously They would ask how he knew what he knew, and all he could offer was that the formula was correct because it gave the right answer They would ask how he came up with the formula and he said he just knew it because it gave the right answer This was just circular arguing to most People were not buying it Eventually people accepted that he was right it took a lot of science to get them there However, even when his ideas about QED were well established, the trouble didn t stop there Feynman, now older, was at a lecture on QED in which the presenter was explaining Feynman s QED Feynman raised his hand with an objection and the lecturer began to explain QED to the old man, whom he did not recognize He talked to Feynman as if he were slow Feynman cut him off and angrily said, When I invented it 25 years ago The lecturer went pale I love that story.This book is filled with many Feynman antics that teach QED in an entertaining manner My favorite part was describing the normalization of QED and how the infinities are so finely balanced that one can picture the side of the equations as a tightrope walker who was teetering as they walked the rope high above Niagara Falls Close is definitely not as accessible as Sean Carroll so if you are not as familiar with quantum physics and the standard model especially the Higgs , I would start with Carroll and then read Close to enjoy the Feynman antics I have to admit this is not much of a review For one I read last year, and for two I made very few notes.I feel this wasof a tour of quantum physics But, what infinity had to do with, unless I missed it, never showed up Disclaimer it could be there and I might have forgot And it failed to provide a very good over view of the nuts and bolts of quantum field theory.So, I did rate it 3 s It wasn t boring and fairly well written, although not with the panache of myfavored authors I have to admit this is not much of a review For one I read last year, and for two I made very few notes.I feel this wasof a tour of quantum physics But, what infinity had to do with, unless I missed it, never showed up Disclaimer it could be there and I might have forgot And it failed to provide a very good over view of the nuts and bolts of quantum field theory.So, I did rate it 3 s It wasn t boring and fairly well written, although not with the panache of myfavored authors There was an interesting bit about emotions and scientific discovery that I did find to be something of importance to point out on page 9 of the Kindle edition.Not a bad read, but not great either There s almost not a wasted word in this book If you blink while listening, you might lose track of the physics The author is very good at writing a history of quantum science from QED to looking for the Higgs boson.He uses the narrative of the scientific players to describe the physics There is nothing of the physics or the math for which he does not explain before he talks about it The problem is the author explains the physics at the moment of introduction than assumes that you will under There s almost not a wasted word in this book If you blink while listening, you might lose track of the physics The author is very good at writing a history of quantum science from QED to looking for the Higgs boson.He uses the narrative of the scientific players to describe the physics There is nothing of the physics or the math for which he does not explain before he talks about it The problem is the author explains the physics at the moment of introduction than assumes that you will understand it and won t explain it to you again.A large audience of people won t like this book If you don t follow the physics as he introduces it, the narrative of the history will not be enough to entertain you He only introduces the physics once and assumes you get it He covers so much of modern physics he really doesn t have time to repeat his clear explanationsthan once.What I liked about this book he really filled in the details for what has happened since quantum mechanics was fully developed and the Large Hadron Collider has gone online I had read many books on each and had mostly just walked away with that particles were very small Now I have a very good feel for what s going on and why the Higgs boson is so important.His last chapter was a marvelous summary of the book I only wish he had summarizedof the physics after he explained difficult conceptsfrequently.I don t want to mislead This book is a very difficult read Some one with no real background in physics can follow it, but it requires ones full concentration He covers the topics so well, I ll probably never have to read another history of that period of physics again for a long time The book is written by a good scientist who wrote some other very clear work and about some fascinating hardcore particle physics I fully expect it to be a 4 if not 5 star book Unfortunately, this is deeply disappointing No doubt it s not a simple subject and it s not easy for laymen to understand Try this The question was this If symmetry is spontaneously broken in the presence of a massless vector gauge boson such as a photon , which gives rise to a long range force, does the Go The book is written by a good scientist who wrote some other very clear work and about some fascinating hardcore particle physics I fully expect it to be a 4 if not 5 star book Unfortunately, this is deeply disappointing No doubt it s not a simple subject and it s not easy for laymen to understand Try this The question was this If symmetry is spontaneously broken in the presence of a massless vector gauge boson such as a photon , which gives rise to a long range force, does the Goldstone Boson become absorbed into the massless gauge boson, thereby providing the longitudinal oscillation the analog of Anderson s plasma oscillation required to covert the massless gauge boson into a massive vector particle You can see, you need to be able to retain a lot of concepts to be able to understand what is happening That s not the actual problem Since it took so many brilliant scientist so long to figure these things out, I m happy to spend a long time to absorb some gist of it The actual problem is that the book does not attempt to clearly explain these concepts For instance, the infinity puzzle in the title is about a quantity with physical meaning being predicted by theory as an infinite quantity I would have welcomed the equation to see for myself There is no such thing Fine, maybe it ll be too much to have equations But a significant portion of book is devoted to things that are too narrow for anybody to care And I m not talking about gossips of Nobel prize I m talking stories of timing of the paper somebody wrote, when the review was received, and so on I get it, they matter for the few scientists in order to sort out chronology But s let s face it, in the grand scheme of things, these are really unnecessary In fact, I don t even want to know the circuitous routes of mis conjecture and the history of corrections I wanted to know the current understanding explained inthan analogies, in Feynman diagrams and simplified equations so that an engineer can understand As it is, it s too much folklore and chronology of the Hunt for the orderly universe I think it is a missed opportunity This book talks about the history of physics since the WWII It has a particular discussion on two prominent figures in physics the Dutch physicist Gerard t Hooft, and the Pakistani physicist Abdus Salam For general people, probably this is the best book on Higgs Boson, from the evolution of Higgs mechanism until its final discovery in LHC.Similar to classical physics, quantum physics has two eras of development One goes by the name Quantum mechanics and the second one as Quantum field th This book talks about the history of physics since the WWII It has a particular discussion on two prominent figures in physics the Dutch physicist Gerard t Hooft, and the Pakistani physicist Abdus Salam For general people, probably this is the best book on Higgs Boson, from the evolution of Higgs mechanism until its final discovery in LHC.Similar to classical physics, quantum physics has two eras of development One goes by the name Quantum mechanics and the second one as Quantum field theory Heisenberg inequality and de Broglie s equation etc are the descriptions of the mechanical view of the quantum world On the other hand, the first Quantum field theory started with Paul Dirac Thanks to Julian Schwinger, Richard Feynman, Tomonaga etc who made their effort to transmute Dirac equation into QED Quantum Electro Dynamics But, all modern Quantum field theory is based on something called the Yang Mill theory Electroweak theory and QCD QFD quantum chromodynamics quantum flavordynamics are two such Yang Mill theory.The name of the book the infinity puzzle comes from the fact that, all the Quantum field theory either based on Dirac equation or Yang Mill theory were unsolvable at the very beginning, as their calculation leads to infinity In the case of QED, Feynman and Schwinger somehow manage to avoid infinity using their unique method of calculation Their renormalisation technique which ultimately made QED practical earned them the Nobel in 1965 But, later same infinity in Yang Mill theory devastated quantum physics For a very long time, physicist didn t know how to renormalise field equations those based on Yang Mill theory Many thought future of any Quantum field theory is doomed Then came the saviour, the brilliant Dutch physicist Gerard t Hooft who single handedly solved the renormalisation problem of prevalent Yang Mill theories Renormalisation may be the critical milestone for modern Quantum field theory, but for a Yang Mill theory to fit with the experiment, other vital concepts need to be ensembled under a unified description For Electroweak theory, Steven Weinberg explained the mechanism how the symmetry of nature be broken, hence giving mass to specific bosons W Z While Sheldon Glashow had done the main heavy lifting for Electroweak theory, he outlined the gauge invariance nature of the theory which gives rise to W Z Photon four bosons in total Both of them earned the Noble of 1979 along with Abdus Salam The author argued that Abdus Salam was given the Nobel due to political reason While Abdus Salam s mentor John Clive Ward was ignored entirely.Now a few interesting points from this book Nature of an electron An electron is a point particle, i.e it doesn t have any spatial dimensions So, what will happen if we try to zoom into an electron Because an electron carries an electric charge, this seemingly simple question becomes much complicated The strength of the electric field depends on the distance, known as the inverse square rule or 1 r 2 As distance increase, the strength of the field decreases But if we keep zooming toward an electron and as the distance approaches zero, the field strength becomes infinite This Infinite electric field gives an electron a fractal like structure Under a microscope if such a thing exists , an electron will look like a boob of negative charge in the middle, and a swarm of virtual particles surrounding the boob No matter how many times we zoom in, the same picture will repeat itself, infinitely Heavy Light We all know the light is nothing but a cloud of the photon Interestingly, there is another kind of light called the heavy light, which is the cloud of the Z boson Inside an atom, the electron and the proton not only exchange photons but something, they also exchange the heavy light or Z boson As a result, technically, the light we know is a mixture photon and Z, this ratio of this mixing is known as the Weinberg angle Mass, Superconductivity and broken symmetry What I understood, symmetry and gauge invariance are somehow related Gauge invariance means if the result of a particular measurement doesn t change regardless of the change of the method or the units of the measurement In physics, this aspect of nature always gives rise to massless boson If for some reason a specific symmetry is broken, we say, that particular symmetry is hidden, and therefore gauge invariance results in massive boson.One of the strange manifestations of such broken symmetry is mass It is difficult to grasp that we have mass because nature is hiding something from our human perception Another interesting aspect of hidden symmetry is Superconductivity In case of Superconductivity, nature hides the electrometric force, often known as symmetry or conservation of electric charge And, nature does this by giving mass to photons Inside a Superconductor, a photon is a massive particle hence electrometric force becomes extremely short range force, so narrow its ranged become as if such force does not exist What happens to Z boson as well as W in a natural world occurs to photon inside a superconductor Longitudinal vs Transverse wave I guess all high school goer knows the difference between this two But, there is one difference that I never knew before The transverse wave is a 2D wave, only massless particle like the photon can have such wave On the other hand, the longitudinal wave is a 3D wave, and only the massive particles can create such wave Plasma, as well as the ionosphere of earth, interact with light consequently, the usual transverse light wave becomes longitudinal when travelling through such cloud of ions This behaviour of light inside Plasma instigated an idea to physicist Philip Anderson on how the symmetry is broken in the presence of a field, later known as Higgs field I have always been fascinated by the whole business of the unification of the world of the electron and the photon with the so called weak force that mediates radioactive decay As someone with an undergraduate physics degree and a PhD and subsequent career in MRI physics, I have a bit of an advantage over an average layperson, but in fact I have none of the relevant background to understand the technicalities of quantum electrodynamics QED , let alone quantum field theory QFT , other than t I have always been fascinated by the whole business of the unification of the world of the electron and the photon with the so called weak force that mediates radioactive decay As someone with an undergraduate physics degree and a PhD and subsequent career in MRI physics, I have a bit of an advantage over an average layperson, but in fact I have none of the relevant background to understand the technicalities of quantum electrodynamics QED , let alone quantum field theory QFT , other than the most basic knowledge of introductory quantum mechanics Over the last thirty or so years, there has been a growing genre of books by leading theoretical physicists, who have attempted to explain their conceptually extraordinary vision of our world to the layperson using metaphors and simplified models They often write extremely clearly, but there is always a limit to how much intuitive understanding can be communicated when the subject matter is truly so impenetrably difficult to grasp Over the years, I have found this frustrating There is the initial excitement that I am going to develop a rather meaningful intuition about the way in which the physical universe is apparently built, only to have my hopes dashed by some terribly important key concept that keeps eluding my understanding.Nowadays, I havetime on hand to ponder these great issues Frank Close s book has certainly helped to reawaken my interest It focusses on the history of how the Standard Model of the elementary particles and forces of nature was built over the last fifty or so years It mixes some very clear explanations of the basic concepts with a detailed account of the jostling of some of the physicists for Nobel glory Close goes into almost painful detail about missed opportunities, the way posterity has seemingly passed over a number of the most important players, and how a few of these became embittered while most seem at least in public to have been good sports and simply enjoyed the ride At times, I found the descriptions of the politics and twists of fate rather obscured the flow of the scientific concepts themselves What I did find remarkable was how several of the key papers were actually the first published papers that the graduate students doing the research had ever written In many cases, their academic supervisors were of course visionaries themselves, but there were plenty of examples of young prophets being shouted down by their older supposed superiors.The title, The Infinite Puzzle, suggests that the book will focus mostly on the intricate questions concerning whether QFTs can be properly renormalized to avoid the generation of infinitely large answers that are physically nonsensical It starts by reviewing how this was shown to be possible for QED, which involves a simple local symmetry the phase of the electron s wave function and a massless gauge photon Problems are shown to arise in a mathematical description of the weak force, where the corresponding symmetry iscomplicated, thereby predicting three gauge bosons, two of which must carry an electric charge and so must have mass The massive nature of these bosons also makes sense, since the weak force is known to be carried only a very short distance But the original Yang Mills theory based on gauge invariance allowed only massless gauge bosons, reflecting the identical energies of the symmetrical states The premise goes that the weak force symmetry is somehow hidden, as in superconductivity, which allows for massive gauge bosons to arise Shortly after the Big Bang, the enormous initial temperature of the universe dropped so that the initial symmetry somehow gets rotated in a special way and thereby hidden to create the three massive weak force gauge bosons while also keeping the QED gauge boson massless as required.I have not attempted to explain any of the jargon in order to keep this concise It will therefore doubtless be a completely meaningless sort of jabberwocky to any reader not already somewhat familiar with these ideas Anyway, this is the stage where I have always got stuck One thing Close does hammer home is that it is local symmetry that is important for gauge theories of QFT But the theories of Weinberg et al suggest that the electroweak force that we see today has crystallized out in such a way that the original symmetry has become hidden by being rotated by the same special Weinberg angle everywhere in space So I imagine this is a local symmetry that has somehow become crystallized out into a single global direction, analogous to one huge ferromagnetic domain I believe this is where the non zero expectation value for the Higgs field comes in Does it automatically find the same minimum value everywhere in space and so causes the symmetry to break identically everywhere Is this somehow a collective phenomenon like superconductivity and ferromagnetism that occurs over all space in the universe As for how on earth this mechanism causes the weak force gauge bosons to acquire mass, I still have not the faintest idea This is what I mean by the frustration about these metaphors that take you only so far and then dump you in the middle of a conceptual desert Nevertheless, I did come away from reading this book with a far better overall idea of what sort of issues were involved in putting together a consistent Standard Model Although I have no idea how the Higgs mechanism works, I sort of get the idea that Yang Mills theory survives because the requisite symmetries are ultimately still there and so a gauge invariance still applies, requiring gauge bosons that don t have to be massless.Close then moves on to the quantum chromodynamics QCD model of the strong force His historical overview tells us how the fractional charge of quarks came to be accepted after much initial resistance, how the proposal of a yetcomplicated symmetry of three color charges enabled yet another Yang Mills theory to be devised, with eight presumed massless gluons as the gauge bosons for QCD At this stage, Close reckons that the reader is comfortable that this too must be renormalizable, and focusses on some of the other quirks of the quark model, including the fact that they have been shown experimentally to act almost independently when they are in very close proximity My copy of the book was reprinted in 2013 and so Close was also able to add a revised ending that covers the 2012 Large Hadron Collider LHC results confirming a sighting of the elusive Higgs boson.Towards the end, Close uses an analogy about cars colliding to explain why it isefficient to have protons and antiprotons crash into each other rather than have protons simply crashing into a stationary target He claims that a car moving at some speed colliding with a stationary car with the brakes off will cause less damage than two cars each travelling towards each other at half the speed of the original car But if I decide to run in the same direction as the first car but at half speed, the first case becomes equivalent to the second case, so by very simple notions of relativity the physics must be identical I can only assume that Close got confused as a result of making each car go at half speed in the second case in order to make too fair a comparison Presumably, a particle accelerator designed to speed up protons to smash into a stationary target can be used with the same acceleration components to speed up protons and antiprotons to the same speed as in the initial design specification, thereby gaining its advantage over the stationary target.The story as presented by Close details how often several physicists were thinking independently along very similar lines At the time, their ideas were often greeted with scorn by many of theirsenior colleagues The fact that these quite revolutionary concepts were dreamed up bythan one physicist somehow enables a layperson like myself to view the whole enterprise with less skepticism The overall theory of a unified SU3xSU2xU1 set of symmetries sounds so elegant, but the details, and the mathematics, seem so horrendously complicated The universe appears to have taken some remarkable twists and turns to arrive at the world that we and experimental physicists see today At times, the whole thing still reminds me a bit of the Emperor and his new clothes Then again, the universe evidently is an utterly weird place when you stop to think about it.The LHC cost an awful lot of money and its realization seems to have been driven at least to some extent by a certain amount of ego Was it worth it At some level one must surely marvel at such an outpouring of human ingenuity, both theoretical and technical But it seems to me that, as the microscopes grow larger and the theorists somehow magically do manage to come up with theories that explain, predict and reasonably neatly organize the myriad of experimental results, instead of really answering anything truly fundamental they simply create increasinglybizarre questions that become ever harder to answer {Free Epub} Ä The Infinity Puzzle: Quantum Field Theory and the Hunt for an Orderly Universe á Speculation is rife that bythe elusive Higgs boson will be found at the Large Hadron Collider If found, the Higgs boson would help explain why everything has mass But there s at stake what we re really testing is our capacity to make the universe reasonable Our best understanding of physics is predicated on something known as quantum field theory Unfortunately, in its raw form, it doesn t make sense its outputs are physically impossible infinite percentages when they should be something simpler, like the numberThe kind of physics that the Higgs boson represents seeks to renormalize field theory, forcing equations to provide answers that match what we see in the real world The Infinity Puzzle is the story of a wild idea on the road to acceptance Only Close can tell it La source blanche : L'étonnante histoire des dialogues avec l'Ange the Higgs boson would help explain why everything has mass But there s at stake what we re really testing is our capacity to make the universe reasonable Our best understanding of physics is predicated on something known as quantum field theory Unfortunately Le sourire à visage humain : Suivi de Citoyen, citoyenneté et Encore plus de plus in its raw form Soigner les plantes par les huiles essentielles et les huiles végétales it doesn t make sense its outputs are physically impossible infinite percentages when they should be something simpler Préparation aux examens de coiffure CAP : Sciences et technologie like the numberThe kind of physics that the Higgs boson represents seeks to renormalize field theory Joyeux anniversaire - Livre d'or à écrire - 18 ans - taille M - Violet forcing equations to provide answers that match what we see in the real world The Infinity Puzzle is the story of a wild idea on the road to acceptance Only Close can tell it If you are fascinated at all with recent and by recent, I mean the latter half of the 20th century development in physics, and the major players involved, then this book is for you I am of the personal belief that even though science at its best is about the world, what makes science human is the people behind it And they, like you or I, have feelings, aspirations, and interests They also make mistakes, sometimes benign, sometimes tragic.Despite my general knowledge, this book still has pla If you are fascinated at all with recent and by recent, I mean the latter half of the 20th century development in physics, and the major players involved, then this book is for you I am of the personal belief that even though science at its best is about the world, what makes science human is the people behind it And they, like you or I, have feelings, aspirations, and interests They also make mistakes, sometimes benign, sometimes tragic.Despite my general knowledge, this book still has places that roughed me up I suspect that a casual reader with little no prior experience will become frustrated, especially as you get further along That being said, I enjoyed the historical context that the book provides the fact that most of the events mentioned in the book happened within the author s lifetime, and for those of us younger, a mere half century ago, makes it all theexciting Why exciting Because we ve learned so much, so recently The world is farfascinating than we have imagined, and in all likelihoodthan we could ever imagine Also, the story of Salam and Ward would make a drama worthy of theater I leave the reader of this review the luxury of discovering the story for him herself